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babyxiao

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September 25, 2007

The Moon (Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite, and the fifth largest moon in the Solar System. The average centre-to-centre distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,403 km (238,863 mi) which is about 30 times the diameter of the Earth.

The Moon has a diameter of 3,474 km (2159 mi)[1]slightly more than a quarter that of the Earth. This means that the volume of the Moon is close to 1/50th that of Earth. The gravitational pull at its surface is about 1/6th of Earth's. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth every 27.3 days, and the periodic variations in the geometry of the Earth–Moon–Sun system are responsible for the lunar phases that repeat every 29.5 days.

The Moon is the only celestial body to which humans have travelled and upon which humans have landed. The first artificial object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 1, the first artificial object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959. The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9, and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10, both in 1966.[1] The United States (U.S.) Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, resulting in six landings between 1969 and 1972. Human exploration of the Moon ceased with the conclusion of the Apollo program, although, as of 2007, several countries have announced plans to send either people or robotic spacecraft to the Moon.

moon

September 25, 2007

The Moon (Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite, and the fifth largest moon in the Solar System. The average centre-to-centre distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,403 km (238,863 mi) which is about 30 times the diameter of the Earth.

The Moon has a diameter of 3,474 km (2159 mi)[1]slightly more than a quarter that of the Earth. This means that the volume of the Moon is close to 1/50th that of Earth. The gravitational pull at its surface is about 1/6th of Earth's. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth every 27.3 days, and the periodic variations in the geometry of the Earth–Moon–Sun system are responsible for the lunar phases that repeat every 29.5 days.

The Moon is the only celestial body to which humans have travelled and upon which humans have landed. The first artificial object to escape Earth's gravity and pass near the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 1, the first artificial object to impact the lunar surface was Luna 2, and the first photographs of the normally occluded far side of the Moon were made by Luna 3, all in 1959. The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9, and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10, both in 1966.[1] The United States (U.S.) Apollo program achieved the only manned missions to date, resulting in six landings between 1969 and 1972. Human exploration of the Moon ceased with the conclusion of the Apollo program, although, as of 2007, several countries have announced plans to send either people or robotic spacecraft to the Moon.

 

moon

September 20, 2007

'Human-animal' embryo green light

[BBC]

 Scientists say such research is essential

Regulators have agreed in principle to allow human-animal embryos to be created and used for research.

can they deal with all? well predicted?!

But scientists wanting to use hybrids will still need to make individual applications, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority said. An HFEA consultation showed the public were "at ease" with the idea when told it could pave the way for therapies for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Opponents have said many people would be "horrified" by such a move.

 Australia - Embryos allowed to be created for research, but human-animal hybrids banned. The only exception is to test the quality of sperm

Canada - Legislation bans the creation of human-animal embryos

US - Federal funds can only be used for research involving pre-existing embryos - such as those left over from fertility treatment - and there is a ban on hybrid embryos

Elsewhere - Other countries do not specifically legislate on hybrid embryos. But Italy and Germany only allow the use of pre-existing embryos and many others including Austria, Norway and Tunisia do not allow embryo research at allScientists want to create hybrid embryos by merging human cells with animal eggs in a bid to extract stem cells. The embryos would then be destroyed within 14 days. The cells form the basic building blocks of the body and have the potential to become any tissue, making them essential for research. At the moment, scientists have to rely on human eggs left over from fertility treatment, but they are in short supply and are not always good quality. Two teams from Kings College London and Newcastle University have already applied to the HFEA to use hybrid embryos. It is now expected individual hearings for these two applications will be held in November with other scientists expected to follow suit.

Reversed decision Dr Stephen Minger, of King's College London, said he "applauded" the HFEA for its decision as it was the only ethically justifiable option if scientists were to push forward with their research. Lyle Armstrong, of Newcastle University, added: "This is excellent news. It is a positive outcome not just for our work but for the progress of British science in general and we hope that this will lead to new technologies to benefit everyone." And he also said: "It does seem a little abhorrent at first analysis, but you have to understand we are using very, very little information from the cow in order to do this reprogramming idea. "It's not our intention to create any bizarre cow-human hybrid, we want to use those cells to understand how to make human stem cells better."

Our top-class researchers can now proceed with their applications to conduct this world-leading research
Dr Evan Harris
Lib Dem MP

Lib Dem MP Dr Evan Harris, a member of the Commons' science and technology committee, which has already given its backing to such research, said: "Our top-class researchers can now proceed with their applications to conduct this world-leading research." And Dr Tony Calland, chairman of the British Medical Assocition's ethics committee, said it could lead to "major breakthroughs in treatments for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other serious diseases". The HFEA decision comes amid government moves to lay down regulations covering such research - the law governing embryo research is out of date and does not cover the issue. The government originally proposed banning the technique in a white paper last year. But it reversed its decision this year in a bill which indicated ministers were minded to allow hybrid embryos which were 99.9% human and 0.1% animal, following a backlash by scientists and patient groups. But the HFEA has carried out its own review ahead of parliament passing the legislation so as not to hold back research. The regulator can grant licences to scientists to pursue such research, but will have to change its criteria if future rules contradicted its own practices.

Dignity

Anthony Ozimic, secretary of pro-life group the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children (SPUC) said he "deplored" the HFEA's decision. "This is not just a case of the 'yuk' factor - there are grave ethical and moral objections to this research and the way it is being promoted."

Using hybrid embryos has never been acceptable - it offends the dignity of humans and animals
Josephine Quintavalle


And
Josephine Quintavalle, of the campaign group Comment on Reproductive Ethics, said the HFEA was wrong to be pushing ahead with a decision which should be left to parliament. "Using hybrid embryos has never been acceptable - it offends the dignity of humans and animals." A spokeswoman for the HFEA said the decision had been a challenging one to reach. "This is not a total green light for hybrid research, but recognition that this area of research can, with caution and careful scrutiny, be permitted." But she added that public opinion was "very finely divided" with people only supporting it if it was tightly regulated and likely to lead to medical advancements.    

02:03 AM Oct 02 2007

babyxiao

babyxiao
China

that is sadly the reality.

they want to get new results and sensational reports about themself and their findings, therefore a absolutely safe approch and program would be too slow.

 

01:46 AM Oct 02 2007

sapere_aude
Turkey

that beats all.A creature which is mixture of human and animal......ı believe people's natural body shouldnt be disturbed.On the other hand it s good to find solutions some diseases.If human being arent defeated his ambitions and cruosity,ıt may be good.but ı dont think so....because science is developing day by day that s why science  will not be control in the future......

 

01:59 PM Sep 27 2007

shanie

shanie
China

Laughing sure

thank u for let me have a chance to read this ...

(mian hui Tongue out

01:48 PM Sep 27 2007

babyxiao

babyxiao
China

thanks for finishing reading it.

:-)

01:41 PM Sep 27 2007

shanie

shanie
China

(taking a long time to finish it ..)

I think we should take it seriously , it maybe funny & curious to somebody , but the consequence is indeed hard to imagine ...

04:32 AM Sep 20 2007

babyxiao

babyxiao
China

In a scientific view, it could be a chance to learn more about stem cells and so on, and fortunately perhaps it could provide more alternaltive ways to treat some diseases, some day hopefully: 

In a ethic sense, I would rather say, nobody can really predict any risks from such researches, and in addition how to resolve them, if something unwholesome happens.

Plus, do you know, how quickly the embryos grow? and how early they could already feel pain? and how equally holy actualy their lifes are like ours?!!

Do not say that artificial fertilization is already a ripe method to help some people get their children. Please do not forget, nearby the born babies there are uncountable embryos were destroyed (in another word, killed).

From the point of my view, our human society has already gone too fast and too far away from the limit of the earth and all the living beings on it. We should just slow down, and make less trouble to the world instead of spending time,money, fuel, and healthy of the earth and living beings to resolve it afterwards.

But anyway, if something really strongly doomed to happen, then it is also difficult to stop it.

At least, we as individuals, must always be peaceful and friendly to others and our plannet.